What is Oxidative Stress, and How Does it Affect Your Health?

What is Oxidative Stress, and How Does it Affect Your Health?

Oxidative stress is an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants in your body. Free radicals are oxygen-containing molecules with an unequal quantity of electrons. The unequal number enables them to react with other molecules quickly. Free radicals may generate a massive chain of chemical events in your body because they combine so readily with other substances.

These processes are termed oxidation. They may be helpful or dangerous. Antioxidants are compounds that can give an electron to a free radical without rendering themselves unstable. This allows the free radical to stabilise and become less reactive.

What Causes Oxidative Stress?

Oxidative Stress is caused by:

  • Metabolic dysfunction, that can lead to cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure and atherosclerosis.
  • Inflammation, which can contribute to aging and chronic fatigue syndrome.
  • Neurological dysfunction like Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.
  • Any type of cancer

How Oxidative Stress Occurs — And Why You Should Avoid It 

You might think of oxidation as the process through which your body converts oxygen into energy, fights off illness, etc. The reactive oxygen species you breathe produce free radicals, which are liberated atoms. Each time an atom of oxygen is broken down and utilised by the body, it releases one unpaired electron. These atoms seek a pair of electrons as they roam the body searching for one to pair with. 

They’re termed free radicals because they scour the body for additional electrons so they may form a pair. Cells, proteins, and DNA are all harmed as a result. Free radicals have been shown to damage DNA and mucous membranes directly. Cigarettes, air pollution, and toxins in our daily life are all potential sources of free radicals in addition to cellular energy generation. 

Oxidative Stress has been related to the development of several diseases, including cancer, heart failure, and diabetes. According to the latest scientific evidence, most so-called “lifestyle” disorders are connected to chronic inflammation and the consequent oxidative stress. Unfortunately, free radical damage is what causes ageing in the first place.

The antioxidants may neutralise these free radicals in your cells, which help keep be affected by several variables, including:

  • Dietary decisions
  • The choices we make in our daily lives
  • Exercise
  • Conditions such as pollution, poor air quality, and more

Risk Factors of Oxidative Stress

‌Because free radicals deplete your cell tissue, oxidative stress may have enduring repercussions. Some chronic illnesses that have been related to oxidative stress include the following: ‌

  • Neurodegenerative diseases
  • Diabetes
  • Hypercholesterolemia
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Other obesity-related diseases

Oxidative Stress – And How You Can Avoid It?

Oxidative Stress is the cause of the body’s immunological response. Natural killer cells and immune system components deliver proteins that denature and destroy invading molecules or damaged cells that need to be eliminated as part of your body’s passive immunity. 

To be sure, this will lead to oxidative stress. Your body’s adaptive immune system naturally produces oxidative Stress and inflammation during fighting off an infection or repairing a wound.

Inflammation is the process through which your body’s white blood cells and the substances they produce defend you from infection by outside intruders like bacteria and viruses. Depending on the degree, inflammation can be either short-lived or long-lasting. The following are the most typical causes of chronic inflammation:

  • Autoimmune condition in which your body assaults healthy tissue
  • Toxin exposure, such as pollution or industrial chemicals
  • Untreated acute inflammation, such as that caused by an infection or an accident

Inflammation in the body is also caused by several lifestyle factors such as excessive drinking, chronic stress, excessive smoking etc. 

Inflammation does not go away on its own. Dietary changes can be made to improve the health of people. The risk of a wide range of diseases can be reduced by eating a nutritious, disease-preventing diet rich in anti-inflammatory foods.

Unchecked oxidative Stress may be harmful to your health. Many of us cannot have a healthy immune system or a recuperation system that works effectively. However, chronic inflammatory disorders such as arthritis may be uncomfortable and have a terrible influence on your overall health, even if inflammation is present in proper proportions.

While free radicals are wreaking havoc on your body, a few simple lifestyle modifications may dramatically lessen the damage they do. In this manner: To begin, ensure that your food is rich in antioxidants. Including a wide variety of fruits and vegetables in your diet may offer your body the antioxidant phytochemicals it needs to make its antioxidants and the antioxidants themselves.

Effects of Oxidative Stress on Your Health?

Immune response of Oxidative Stress on Health

1. Oxidative Stress and Kidney Diseases

Numerous illnesses of the renal apparatus, such as glomerular- and tubulointerstitial nephritis, renal failure, proteinuria, and uremia, are linked to oxidative stress. Oxidative Stress is detrimental to renal function because ROS generation activates inflammatory cells and the synthesis of cytokines, leading to a pre-inflammation state in the kidney.

2. Oxidative Stress and Sexual Maturity

Several researchers have suggested that oxidative stress might be a factor in delayed sexual development and puberty onset. The same metallic element, Cd, has been linked to increased free radicals and oxidative stress in children and pregnant women in the prepubertal stage of life. We may conclude that oxidative Stress and free radicals are implicated in a wide range of clinical diseases that impact a variety of tissues and systems, making them one of the most significant and ubiquitous threats to human health.

3. Oxidative Stress and Respiratory Disease

Oxidative Stress has been related to several lung disorders, including asthma and COPD, characterised by persistent inflammation. One of the most well-known ways oxidants contribute to inflammation is via the activation of kinases linked to various pathways and transcription factors.

4.  Inflammation and Rheumatoid Arthritis

Macrophages and activated T cells infiltrate the joints and surrounding tissues in rheumatoid arthritis, a chronic inflammatory condition. It has been shown that elevated levels of isoprostane and prostaglandin in the synovial fluid of individuals with this syndrome suggest the importance of free radicals present at sites of inflammation in the onset and evolution of this condition.

5. Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Disease

Multifactorial aetiology characterises cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which have many risk factors, including high cholesterol, high blood pressure, tobacco use, diabetes, an imbalanced diet, and a sedentary lifestyle. Many CVDs may have oxidative Stress as a significant or secondary cause, according to studies published in the previous few years. Atherosclerosis is primarily triggered by oxidative stress. An early inflammation of the endothelium leads to ROS production by macrophages recruited in situ, leading to atheromatous plaque formation.

6. Oxidative Stress and Cancer

Endogenous and external triggers are involved in the development of human cancer, which necessitates changes at the cellular and molecular levels. One of the triggers for cancer formation is oxidative DNA damage, which is well-known. Chromosome abnormalities and oncogene activation caused by oxidative Stress may drive or promote cancer. 

Approaching a balanced lifestyle may help prevent oxidative stress. Antioxidants are the most effective therapy for oxidative stress, and nutrition plays a vital part. Many potentially serious illnesses are caused by oxidative stress. Final thoughts: because of its importance in human pathogenetic, investigations into oxidative stress may be crucial for the future understanding and treatment of numerous illnesses.

More information on oxidative stress assay kits and standards may be found at Helvetica Health Care